Maastricht Globalisation Index (MGI)
It is clear that globalisation is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalisation are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more international cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. To be in a position to evaluate the consequences of globalisation in a rational and scientific manner, objective indicators are needed. We have developed the Maastricht Globalisation Index (MGI). This index measures the economic, social-cultural, technological, ecological and political dimensions of globalisation and allows comparison of the degree and change in globalisation for a large number of countries.
MGI updated 2012
We revised and updated the Maastricht Globalisation Index for 117 countries and three points in time—2000, 2008, and 2012—including a new calculation methodology and data. Results show that globalisation still continues but has slowed down, due to the recent economic crisis.
Figge, L., Oebels, K., & Offermans, A. (2016). The effects of globalization on Ecological Footprints: an empirical analysis. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-14. doi:10.1007/s10668-016-9769-8
Is globalisation sustainable?
The Maastricht Globalisation Index is compared with Sustainability Indices to analyse if more globalised countries are doing better in terms of sustainable development and its dimensions. The results seem to suggest that the process of globalisation may render world development more sustainable.
Martens, P. & Raza, M. (2010). Is globalisation sustainable? Sustainability, 2, 280-293.
Is globalisation healthy?
The Maastricht Globalisation Index is linked with health indicators to analyse if more globalised countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalisation provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalisation is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalisation may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalisation on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all.
Martens,P., Akin, S., Huynen, M. & Raza, M. (2010). Is Globalisation Healthy: a Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Globalisation on Health. Globalisation and Health, 6(16).
Globalisation and the economic crisis
We test the hypothesis that more globalized countries in Europe are equally vulnerable to the current crisis as less globalized European countries. To determine the level of globalization, we use the Maastricht Globalization Index. We measure the severity of the economic crisis with five key economic indicators. The results seem to suggest that the rising level of globalization increases vulnerability to economic crises on the one hand, while, on the other, higher levels of globalization increase the opportunities to deal with a crisis.
Martens, P. & Amelung, B. (2010). On the correlation between globalization and vulnerability in times of economic crisis – a statistical analysis for Europe. Globality Studies Journal, 17 (6 May 2010), 1-15.
- Martens, P., Caselli, M., De Lombaerde, P., Figge, L. & Scholte, J. (2015). New directions in globalization indices. Globalizations, doi 10.1080/14747731.2014.944336.
- Figge, L. & Martens, P. (2014). Globalisation Continues: The Maastricht Globalisation Index Revisited and Updated, Globalizations, DOI: 10.1080/14747731.2014.887389
- Martens, P., Dreher, A. & Gaston, N. (2010). Globalisation, the global village and the civil society. Futures, 42, 574-582.
- Martens,P., Akin, S., Huynen, M. & Raza, M. (2010). Is Globalisation Healthy: a Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Globalisation on Health. Globalisation and Health, 6(16).
- Martens, P. & Amelung, B. (2010). On the correlation between globalization and vulnerability in times of economic crisis – a statistical analysis for Europe. Globality Studies Journal, 17 (6 May 2010), 1-15.
- Dreher, A., Gaston, N., Martens, P. & Van Boxem, L. (2010). Measuring globalisation – opening the black box. A critical analysis of globalisation indices. Journal of Globalization Studies, 1(1), 166-185.
- Martens, P. & Raza, M. (2010). Is globalisation sustainable? Sustainability, 2, 280-293.
- Martens, P. & Raza, M. (2009). Globalisation in the 21st century: measuring regional changes in multiple domains. The Integrated Assessment Journal, 9(1), 1-18.
- Dreher, A., Gaston, N. & Martens, P. (2008). Measuring Globalisation Gauging Its Consequences, New York: Springer.
- Britwum, A.O & Martens, P. (2008). The Challenge of Globalization, Labor Market Restructuring and Union Democracy in Ghana. African Studies Quarterly ,10, 2 & 3.
- Martens, P. and D. Zywietz (2006). Rethinking globalisation: a modified globalisation index. Journal of International Development 18: 331-350.